How Volcanoes Froze the Earth (Twice)

  • Опубліковано 17 лип 2019
  • Over 600 million years ago, sheets of ice coated our planet on both land and sea. How did this happen? And most importantly for us, why did the planet eventually thaw again? The evidence for Snowball Earth is written on every continent today.
    Thanks to Julio Lacerda and Franz Anthony from Studio 252mya for their wonderful illustrations. You can find more of their work here:
    Special thanks to Judy Pu for answering our questions about Snowball Earth.
    Produced in collaboration with PBS Digital Studios:
    Super special thanks to the following Patreon patrons for helping make Eons possible:
    Katie Fichtner, Anthony Callaghan, MissyElliottSmith, The Scintillating Spencer, AA, Zachary Spencer, Stefan Weber, Ilya Murashov, Charles Kahle, Robert Amling, Po Foon Kwong, Larry Wilson, Merri Snaidman, John Vanek, Neil H. Gray, Esmeralda Rupp-Spangle, Gregory Donovan, الخليفي سلطان, Gabriel Cortez, Marcus Lejon, Robert Arévalo, Robert Hill, Todd Dittman, Betsy Radley, PS, Philip Slingerland, Jose Garcia, Eric Vonk, Tony Wamsley, Henrik Peteri, Jonathan Wright, Jon Monteiro, James Bording, Brad Nicholls, Miles Chaston, Michael McClellan, Jeff Graham, Maria Humphrey, Nathan Paskett, Connor Jensen, Daisuke Goto, Hubert Rady, Gregory Kintz, Tyson Cleary, Chandler Bass, Joao Ascensao, Tsee Lee, Sarah Fritts, Alex Yan
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  • Наука та технологія


  • Jessica O.
    Jessica O. 5 днів тому

    The longest snow day ever! Yay!

  • Shanine Jackman
    Shanine Jackman 6 днів тому +1

    I honestly learn better Stuff then I ever did in school watching these videos!!!
    Thank you PBS Eons & the ppl the ppl who work hard on these vids to give us this info!!!! 👏

  • ronin
    ronin 6 днів тому

    This is how the end of Game of Thrones should have been.

  • The Hiking gamer
    The Hiking gamer 7 днів тому

    Next video: how the humans scorched the earth ( first and last time).

  • Scott Jones
    Scott Jones 9 днів тому

    Another video to remind me how tough it will be to find life on other planets, since we have to find it at the right time.

  • KHDZ Gaming
    KHDZ Gaming 11 днів тому

    I dunno I’d like to see more evidence then presented 🤷‍♂️

    • Eduardo Freitas
      Eduardo Freitas 11 днів тому

      I wish they would just put the articles in the description but it's pretty easy to google stuff we see. Tons of scientific articles in these subjects.

  • Zane Bliss
    Zane Bliss 11 днів тому

    Hoth phase.

  • weibie Katz
    weibie Katz 13 днів тому

    Could the channel do a video about the evolution of the first true flowers?

  • Dipak Singh
    Dipak Singh 13 днів тому

    Fantastic documentary! one question - Is it possible that another ice ball earth to happen in future? Or, the earth is going to get so warm in future that an ice ball earth or even an ice age can never occur?

  • Candy Souvannarangsy
    Candy Souvannarangsy 14 днів тому +2

    Why is all I can think of during this video is
    "Super-heated rocks from the Earth's core is surging to the crust, melting ice built up over thousands of years." 🙃🙃🙃
    Evidence: the equator froze
    Scientists: no no no can't be... the Earth must've freaking flipped completely on its side

  • Fishslap 33
    Fishslap 33 15 днів тому

    I would like to point out here that liquid water at earth's pressure levels can't really get much below 0C regardless,. So for sea life at least, conditions wouldn't have changed too much temperature wise. Arctic waters now were at basically the same temperature as sea water would have been then. And the ice that forms on the surface insulates the water below, which helps it stay liquid. Dark and low on oxygen, yes. Also slightly less water to live in, since a lot of it is ice. But other than that, not so different.

  • Sheepboy25262
    Sheepboy25262 15 днів тому +1

    pbs for the win (ftw)

  • Catherine Miranda
    Catherine Miranda 15 днів тому +1

    *not to hot and not too cold*
    Me: UMMMMM well IT'S GETTING hotter and POLAR BEARS ARE going extinct cause of global warming 😢😢😢

  • David Roberts
    David Roberts 16 днів тому

    Terrible, uninspiring presentation.

  • Maanya Mahesh
    Maanya Mahesh 16 днів тому +1

    I loveeee spongesss!!!
    and Eons too

  • Not Human
    Not Human 16 днів тому +1

    Single cause theories are weak.
    More likely its was oxygen at high atmospheric levels, boom in life increased while decreasing carbon recyclers, earth either tilted or was hit hard enough by a commet to push it off its obrit, decreasing sunlight and temperatures starting a die off, more and more creatures died and killed most of carbon recyclers left, this run away reaction caused the earth to rapidly cool.
    It ended when oxygen couldn't be replaced, volcanic activity caused a melt somewhere and exposed large amounts of carbon mats, bacteria returned to eat it releasing more carbon then reversed it.
    Or life learned to survive off the deep seas with no where else to go and built up enough methane over time to be released.
    Life has away to survive if carbon, water, and some source of food to be tapped then piggybacks off of it to expand and adapt.

  • krutarth panchal
    krutarth panchal 16 днів тому

    Django to Stephen: Hey snowball!
    Earth: umm. That hurts!

  • morelli tech
    morelli tech 17 днів тому

    In order for us to servive is for future societies to become transgendered, and luckily the US is spearheading this change in social norms. Please vote in 2020, and think about the future of our planet.

  • Weronika Erdmann
    Weronika Erdmann 17 днів тому

    I love Snowball Earth. That was so cool time.

  • Jeremy Bennett
    Jeremy Bennett 17 днів тому


  • Phyrrus John Seno
    Phyrrus John Seno 17 днів тому

    TierZoo: Outside Beta ver. Patch Snowball Earth

  • Ace Kiwi71
    Ace Kiwi71 18 днів тому

    What's her name?

  • Tom Kast
    Tom Kast 18 днів тому

    But your whole assumption is that if life is here now, it must have lasted through snowball earth. That simply highlights that you do not know, nor accept that "life" can "start" somewhere. So please let me help. The earth itself can start. We believe it formed from star dust from another exploding star that (dust) was revolving around the sun. And a given form of "life" (e.g. prokaryotes) too can start. And it will start again in an infinite number of places. That is all common sense. But the key, that is missing here, is that "life" is not what you think it is, well, it is much more. In its greater definition, it actually has no "start" only evolution (no quotes, evolution is a very correct idea about life). Minerals precipitating is also life. Crystals growing is life. And there are natural logical subsequent steps, from there, leading to, RNA growing, etc... Just like some 8 billion years ago, the earth started growing, it is also alive. Then of course conversely "death" is also not that absolute end that it is defined as...

  • subhabrata das
    subhabrata das 18 днів тому

    OK ,I get it .The earth is old.

  • heheheheheheheheheh
    heheheheheheheheheh 18 днів тому

    proof global warning isnt real

    checkmate atheists

  • AppleGamer
    AppleGamer 18 днів тому

    when will it happen again???

  • Catwoman
    Catwoman 18 днів тому

    This could save us for the global can happen again,so buy extra socks..

  • Jack Crooker
    Jack Crooker 18 днів тому

    If the continental plates were shifting so violently during that time period, I think their separation points would probably be where the ice was thin enough to support photosynthesis. The shifting would generate/release heat and constantly cause cracks to firm in the ice, after all.

  • Carl Boucher
    Carl Boucher 19 днів тому

    Thank you very much for explaining this.. and it is exactly why we need the Federal Reserve to print out a couple of quadrillion. So we can give it back to the government in the form of taxes so we can colonize Mars.. I mean it's only logical right

  • TheHelpfulBoi
    TheHelpfulBoi 19 днів тому

    Could you please make a video on pterosaurs? And about their origins, golden age....and their downfall. Here's how I think this event occurred. Pterosaurs evolved from archosaurs, splitting off from other groups about 245 MYA. Then, they began to glide through the canopy of the early Triassic, the skin membranes growing larger and more durable as time progressed. By the middle Triassic, the first true pterosaurs appeared, and could fly as well as glide. They, along with many others, survived the Triassic\Jurrasic extinction event, and some, now exploring open air and wide spaces, grew huge (Pterodon) while others remained small, and continued thriving in the dense woods. That is, until...the birds evolved. The birds were far better adapted than the pterosaurs were at living in dense forests (studier wing muscles, more resistance to damage from branches due to feathering, etc) and drove the smaller pterosaurs to extinction. The giant ones, however, continued to live in the open sky, growing larger as time went onwards. Until about 66.5 MYA (or 65.5 MYA). Queztacoatlus and Hatztergotrix (or how they're actually spelled) were the largest of all the pterosaurs. And they would be the last as well. The mass extinction event that came shortly after their arrival spelled their ultimate doom, and finally ended the reign of the flying reptiles, who will never be seen again. But with them gone, the birds now had free reign over the sky to themselves (and the flying insects, obviously) and diversified into the groups we see today (and some that are extinct).

  • unlachy
    unlachy 19 днів тому

    Can you guys do an episode on the evolution of the kangaroo?

  • Lee Martin
    Lee Martin 20 днів тому

    And in the end there was... pretty girl!

  • Eron Powell
    Eron Powell 20 днів тому

    Can you guys explain the "three metre gap" before the K-Pg boundary? I am wondering how much weight this gives to the idea that the K-PG extinction didn't occur as immediately as the Alvarez hypothesis would suggest.

  • OldeOne deESuhrim
    OldeOne deESuhrim 20 днів тому

    What is the target demographic for PBS Eons?

  • Ellorra Games
    Ellorra Games 20 днів тому

    You often ask us to put any topics we'd be interested in hearing about in the comments. I would like to know more about the gravitational anomaly discovered in Antarctica. When I first heard about this structure, I immediately made a mental connection between it and the eruption of the Siberian Traps on the other side of the planet. I have actually watched a program on UAplus that makes that connection, very briefly, but I'm not sure of the accuracy of this assumption. I would like to know more about this. Is it possible there is a connection? I'm pretty sure the anomaly has not yet been dated, so I'm sure it's not possible to draw a correlation between the two events. How big is this possible crater? If it is an impact crater, how large could the impactor have been? Has anyone done a computer model of this possible impact? If it is an impact crater, does the location at the southern pole effect the way ejecta would have been distributed? Is there any evidence of a large impact in geologic history that cannot be connected to an impact crater? I don't believe there is conclusive evidence of an impact event at the time of the Permian-Triassic extinction, but I would like to know more about that too. Thank you!

  • Kayden Carpenter
    Kayden Carpenter 21 день тому

    You should do one on the history of how we tamed dogs

  • Guilherme Oliveira
    Guilherme Oliveira 21 день тому

    PBS Eons: you are the MVP

  • Sonora Orchard
    Sonora Orchard 21 день тому

    I'm excited for the sponges video!

  • Geology
    Geology 21 день тому

    I can see how the build of volcanic CO2 would lead to the warming of the Earth, however, I'm having problems seeing how volcanoes could inject enough aerosols into the stratosphere for enough time to cool the Earth to a point of no-return per say. Stratovolcanoes can erupt and cool the planet for a few years, but not millions, for example: Mount Pinatubo, Mount Tambora, and Krakatoa. Flood basalts associated with rifting, effusive eruptions that *can* last for millions of years, do not inject aerosols into the stratosphere, hence why they are typically associated with warming and mass extinctions (ie. Siberian flood basalts, Deccan flood basalts, the Central Atlantic magmatic province...
    Is there evidence of a, or multiple, super volcano eruption(s)?
    Not entirely convinced of the cause of the onset of 'Snowball Earth'. Are there recent papers that you can share on the topic which lead your team to state the cause so definitively in the video?

  • Juanico Marco
    Juanico Marco 21 день тому

    Prehistoric Marsupials of Australia and South America. I wish you could do that. 😀♥️

  • Jayson Fung
    Jayson Fung 22 дні тому

    I wish I knew the names of the background music they use

  • Andrew Baker
    Andrew Baker 22 дні тому

    Do a video on dinopithecus

  • ラップせラン
    ラップせラン 22 дні тому +1

    Well... I'm off to work now.....

  • Jakob Werbe
    Jakob Werbe 22 дні тому

    Can you guys do a video about the ancient drawings of dinosaurs that man made in egypt or other ancient cultures

  • meesalikeu
    meesalikeu 23 дні тому

    do a show about life on earth mark I (before the moon)

  • Aurelio Parado Jr
    Aurelio Parado Jr 23 дні тому +1

    Ok before watching this video i do not understand the logic here....SO BASSICLY VOLCANOES ARE NOT HOT AND THEY FROZE EARTH.OK .. *TWICE* ??? oh well ima watch and find out HOW this happend..

    • Aurelio Parado Jr
      Aurelio Parado Jr 18 днів тому

      Omg thnx

    • rent a shill
      rent a shill 18 днів тому

      vulcanos can be so powerfull
      that they eject tons of dust and ash into the athmosphere
      blocking out the sunlight for years

  • Ako C Tek
    Ako C Tek 23 дні тому

    can you do a video about the deep sea creatures from the prehistoric era

  • Simon Augustine
    Simon Augustine 24 дні тому

    It's totally possible for something catastrophic like this to happen in the near future.
    I'd say today, but I think science is equipped enough to detect most civilization ending events prior to them occurring. The length of time prior to said events would vary, but I'm sure that some must be undetectable until they begin. Can we predict large solar flairs before they happen? Like longer than the 8 minutes it takes sunlight to reach Earth.

  • Mike Potter
    Mike Potter 24 дні тому +1

    Good explanation, thanks!

  • Vedek andre
    Vedek andre 24 дні тому +1

    I’m certain that we’re all related to tauntauns, rather then spongebob

  • KittenSparkles Cute!
    KittenSparkles Cute! 24 дні тому +1

    I just watched one of your other videos and I have a question (if this is already a video I'm sorry): Why are so many of today's whales filter-feeders and why is this better than being able to eat larger prey?

  • FlintSparked
    FlintSparked 24 дні тому

    Sometimes I wish I was an immortal eye, peering at the earth since the beginning of time. Watching all the changes that came to the ground and the life on it. Remembering it all, knowing the countless events which are a mystery to our modern life.

  • ytgsp
    ytgsp 25 днів тому

    What the F__k is CELSIUS?! We do Fahrenheit in the USA! Why are people whining about global warming when the witch hunt against atmospheric 'pollution' took away our ability to reflect a greater percentage of sunlight back into space, allowing more of it to reach, and HEAT, the Earth's surface? THAT'S the reason for the warm up everyone is hysterical about, not realizing that a snapshot of a few hundred years is NOTHING in terms of this planet's weather patterns. (And they think a TAX will somehow fix it.)

    • nosferatu5
      nosferatu5 22 дні тому +1

      what an empty rant

  • Louie Wyman
    Louie Wyman 25 днів тому

    As psittacosaurus is my favorite dinosaur, I may be biased, but as the species has over 400 specimens, I think that may be enough to warrant an episode on the species and what fossils can tell us based on shear number of sample size. Please do something to this effect, It is such an underrated dinosaur for how much information it has given us on fossil evidence alone.

  • Brit G
    Brit G 25 днів тому

    My kids and I love your videos. The kids are more interested in the animals videos but I love them all. When I was little I remember watching many documentaries about our world with my grandpa and I hope to do the same with my kids.

  • al3030
    al3030 25 днів тому

    Great episode and well narrated!

    GAMEZSTAA 25 днів тому

    Is this going to happen again?

  • Johannes Schlichting
    Johannes Schlichting 25 днів тому

    These hectic voices. This uninterrupted babble. Appalling.

  • soaplol1
    soaplol1 25 днів тому

    Can you tell us about Aglaspids?

  • Manuel Hernandez
    Manuel Hernandez 25 днів тому

    Can you guys make a video about titanoboas?

  • Joe Previdi
    Joe Previdi 25 днів тому

    I find these videos incredibly humbling. It's a wonderful trip in each episode to think about the grand scheme of the long history of our planet. It makes me understand better how long the world has been around, and makes me feel therefore calmer about any problems I might have

  • Me
    Me 26 днів тому

    Where’s the sponge episode

  • Ellie Ernsteen
    Ellie Ernsteen 26 днів тому

    can you do a video about the evolution of intelligence?

  • Wak Job
    Wak Job 26 днів тому

    A thousand million years ago?
    ...ok then.

  • james breen
    james breen 26 днів тому

    One topic that might be interesting to make a video about is coral. Specifically, how coral was used to show the rotation of the earth is slowing and the coral gap. I think it would be interesting to hear about the major evidence supporting the main theories for the gap (The environment was not conducive for coral preservation or coral independently evolved two times and formed very similar structures).

  • Mary Hennessy
    Mary Hennessy 26 днів тому

    Why is an American telling me degrees in Celsius? I have no concept of Celsius.

  • melinda3281
    melinda3281 26 днів тому

    Weight did rodinia come before or after pangea????

  • Anton Cvetkov
    Anton Cvetkov 26 днів тому +1

    amazing, this channel is so underated

  • j
    j 26 днів тому

    Ice ice baby

  • jcmyint
    jcmyint 26 днів тому

    This is so inspiring. It never ceases to amaze me how hard life can hold on!

  • Yakarot Sennin
    Yakarot Sennin 26 днів тому

    If we find frozen Earth-sized worlds in the habitable zones of their stars, don’t immediately dismiss them as lifeless rocks?

  • Margaret Lyall
    Margaret Lyall 26 днів тому

    I’m surprised you didn’t mention the possibility that life survived snowball Earth in hot springs.

  • Kara Nardolillo
    Kara Nardolillo 26 днів тому

    Finally another video and my favorite speaker. 👍

  • David Szoke
    David Szoke 26 днів тому

    Blessed content. Future video on the meter-scale problem or the Hadean Eon please??

  • Aza rond
    Aza rond 26 днів тому

    how did primates get to the new world if it was already separated from Africa during their evolution?

  • Denis Tyrant
    Denis Tyrant 27 днів тому

    Nice episode! I have some future ideas:
    Evolution of Mosasaurs
    Ginsu Shark (Like a main episode)
    American Lion
    Giganotosaurus (Mapusaurus is probably better)
    Dinosaur Pack Hunting

  • TheLeftwingRightwing
    TheLeftwingRightwing 27 днів тому

    Could you do an episode on when insects first started living in colonies with a single queen?

    WMWMWM W 27 днів тому

    Cannot believe so many people believe these fantasies.

  • Jam Dob
    Jam Dob 27 днів тому

    You should do about dogger land 😁

  • Mexico countryball
    Mexico countryball 27 днів тому

    Damn if only Mexico was there

  • Kim Jong Squarepants
    Kim Jong Squarepants 27 днів тому

    Could you please do a video on bat evolution

  • NavyBlueVinyl
    NavyBlueVinyl 28 днів тому

    *the Night King loves this*

  • James W
    James W 28 днів тому

    Great job as always Kallie. You might want to further explain the formation of inorganic calcium carbonate though, as most people associate limestones with organic activity.

  • Burn Angel
    Burn Angel 28 днів тому +1

    PBS Eons: Sponges were almost unkillable
    [insert comment about SpongeBob being the longest running series on Nickelodeon]

  • hipcat13
    hipcat13 28 днів тому

    A larger CO2 sink is the ocean itself. Cooler waters will suck up more CO2. Also let's not forget corals, which also form carbonate rocks, and take in CO2.

  • Crazy Cody's Creatures
    Crazy Cody's Creatures 28 днів тому

    How can you leave us on a cliffhanger of UNKILLABLE SPONGES!?!?!

  • beja k
    beja k 28 днів тому

    I'm waiting whole week for the new episode. Thanks for all episodes

  • jose escamilla
    jose escamilla 28 днів тому

    my brother in law is single !

  • VC YT
    VC YT 28 днів тому

    Notice how CLIMATE CHANGE is nothing new. Its been happening for millions of years.

  • elck3
    elck3 28 днів тому +1


  • Dzulfiqar Bagas Tito
    Dzulfiqar Bagas Tito 29 днів тому

    Please make a special series about Indonesia. About the biological, geographical, and historical condition.
    Indonesia is the home of a lot of active volcanoes and some of them even supervolcanoes.
    Indonesia also the home when some archaeologist found the 'missing link' Homo Erectus at Sangiran Early Man Site.
    Indonesia also has rich biodiversity both on land and in water. Tropical rainforest and coral triangle.
    It's also a land where dwarfism and gigantic-sm happen. Look at their tiny tarsius and the huge asian/water monitor lizard called as komodo. And also they have homo florensis. The 'hobbit' from Flores.
    It's the land where some spices originated. Beside India, Indonesia is popular for its spices.
    Indonesia also kinda a young region. Because at Pangaea era, the land that will become Indonesia is under the sea.
    It's also rich with ancient n medieval history.
    It will be interesting if u guys do a series about Indonesia. And u guys should name the series to look more epic. Like.. "the Indonesia saga" or "nusantara saga" or "the second rich biodiversity land", or whatever u want :)

    • Dzulfiqar Bagas Tito
      Dzulfiqar Bagas Tito 29 днів тому

      Indonesia is such an underrated region...
      It needs more cover on every historical book n educational video

  • Cyrus tpb
    Cyrus tpb 29 днів тому

    Mother nature left the fridge door open.

  • Jasmine
    Jasmine 29 днів тому

    You guys should do a Evolution of Penguins video.

  • Frederick Rhodes
    Frederick Rhodes 29 днів тому

    Those same magnetite showed that the earth actually grew larger, doubling in mass over 65 million years, showing the Pangea, Gondwana, Rodinia theory was flawed, so this snowball earth theory is likely flawed, too, based on wrong plate tectonics movements.

  • Leopard Bra Brado
    Leopard Bra Brado 29 днів тому

    Who lives in the pinneapple under the ice...? SPONGEBOB INDESTRUCTIBLEPANTS

  • Paul Mullinax
    Paul Mullinax 29 днів тому

    I’d love to see a video on the evolution of bats. I thought I knew what they were and then looking at different pages on them I realized I knew nothing and thought it would be a cool video

  • Mike Becket
    Mike Becket 29 днів тому

    Absolute junk crap junk science

  • Jim mij
    Jim mij 29 днів тому

    How did scientists find out that the brightness of the Sun fell by 7%?

  • darthmike101
    darthmike101 29 днів тому

    Great episode!

  • Tom Critter
    Tom Critter 29 днів тому

    Can we get a video on megaloceros. Or any of the other mega fauna not covered yet?